New Experimental Feature: ATTEMPT/RECOVER

A bit over a month ago, I wrote about my intention of tearing out support for "JAVACODE" productions. A JAVACODE production is really just a Java method that is like a pretend grammatical production. I could find very few JavaCC grammars in the wild that used this.

I asked whether anybody would miss them and nobody answered. This could be because nobody cares or nobody is paying any attention anyway. Regardless, they are gone. RIP.

Another related legacy JavaCC feature (perhaps using the term "feature" loosely)  is try-catch. I don't mean the try-catch that is part of the  Java language. I mean the JavaCC try-catch where you put a grammatical expansion inside the try block. Like so:

try {
  Foo() Bar() Baz()
catch (ParseException e) {
   // Some arbitrary Java code

So you have a grammar expansion inside the try block and then you have a catch (one or more catch blocks and maybe a finally block, just like Java) in which you put your Java code to handle the error. Except.... hold on...

What do you do inside the recovery block?

Beats me. Just as I pointed out in my post about getting rid of JAVACODE productions, JavaCC provides no real disposition for error recovery. With this sort of try-catch, the general situation is that  the exception bubbled up from deep in the bowels of our grammar, I mean some deeply nested sub-expansion, right? So what are we supposed to do in the catch block? Or to frame the question more precisely: What do we do in the catch/finally section that is more useful than just letting the exception bubble up to whatever default handler?

Well, I think the cold hard truth of the matter is that there really is not much to do be done in this spot.  Ergo, this "feature" is simply not very useful. And that could explain why nobody uses it! I scoured the web trying to find real-world usage examples of this this try-catch and came up with nothing. Really nothing, even less than JAVACODE productions. I can't find a single JavaCC grammar out there that does this.

Of course, the feature being about as useful (as a nun's... fill-in-the-blank) is only one explanation for nobody using it. Another possible explanation for nobody using the feature is that people don't even know about it! I tried to think back about whether, in my FreeMarker development days, I even knew that you could put this kind of try/catch in a grammar production. I honestly can't remember whether I even knew that the feature existed. (Another damned senior moment, eh?) I likely knew at some point, but I wouldn't be surprised if I was a heavy user of JavaCC for years before happening on this. After all, the main way that people learn JavaCC is by studying and adapting existing grammars, and if the existing grammars simply never use this...

Well, anyway, the existing try/catch really is not useful for a very simple reason: it doesn't rewind to the state of the parse before the attempted expansion. So I introduced an alternative construct that does do that. And instead of try/catch, it is ATTEMPT/RECOVER. The syntax (and if I get feedback, it could still change) looks like this!

ATTEMPT(Foo() Bar())
   // optional java code block
    FooBar() Schmoobar()

So, you ATTEMPT to parse some expansion and then after RECOVER, you can have two blocks, one being a block of Java code or another Expansion to fall back on. Now, actually, as things stand, you can have both the java code block and the recovery expansion or just just one of the two. (Though I guess you could effectively have neither by simply putting in an empty java code block {} and not having any recovery expansion.

In any case, the idea is that your java code tweaks something or other so that you can recover. Maybe it skips past some invalid goo or it changes to another lexical state before resuming the parse.

Regardless, the key thing to take away from this is that when you hit RECOVER, the state of your world is restored to what it was right before the ATTEMPTed expansion. That includes the state of the tree building machinery and your lexical state and such.


Now, this is an experimental new feature and I am quite interested in getting feedback about how it should work. For example, I am grappling with the question of how syntactic lookaheads should deal with an ATTEMPT/RECOVER block. The current state of things is that if you write:

void Foobar() : 

In the above case, a syntactic LOOKAHEAD, like LOOKAHEAD(Foobar()) will create a lookahead routine that scans forward for the ATTEMPTed expansion Foo() Bar() but does not check for Baz().

The idea is that the Foobar() production really only completes normally via Foo() Bar(), not the recovery expansion Baz(), which we are using to fallback to if we can't do Foo()Bar().

It could be argued that LOOKAHEAD(Foobar()) should check forward for Foo()Bar() OR Baz() since both of them would end up matching the production. I'm really not sure and would be quite happy to discuss with people how this should work. This would be anybody's chance to have some input at an early stage to how the next generation of this tool will work.

So I'll just close by saying that this new feature is currently experimental and subject to change and we are very interested in feedback. I would also add that the feature, though already far more useful than the existing try-catch (that is still available, by the way) it will become more useful over the coming weeks and months, as more error-recovery machinery is introduced, so that there is a clearer answer to what one can do in the recovery block!

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